What is in the Differential Diagnosis for Brown and Grey Skin Conditions?

Patient Presentation
A 14 year-old male came to clinic for his health examination visit and to followup for obesity. He had increased his physical activity over the past 6 months but had not made dietary changes.

The pertinent physical exam showed an obese male with normal vital signs. He had gained 3.4 kg since his last visit and had increased his BMI to 37.2. His skin showed velvety-brown lesions on his neck and upper back. The rest of his examination was non-contributory. The diagnosis of a teenage male with obesity, acanthosis nigricans and increasing BMI trend was made. He was commended for increasing his exercise but also counseled again about healthy eating. After his laboratory evaluation showed abnormal lipids, hemoglobin A1c of 6.7%, and elevated liver enzymes, he was also referred to the cardio-metabolic clinic for additional evaluation and management including meeting with a dietician.

Discussion
This is the fourth in a short case series of differential diagnoses of colored skin conditions.
An introduction to dermatological terminologies and information about colors can be found here.
A differential diagnosis by distribution and common pattern can be found here.
For red, orange and yellow conditions, a review can be found here.
For green, blue and purple conditions, a review can be found here.
For black and white conditions, a review can be found here.

Note that any color can be a normal variant for an individual or is physiologic for a given state.

Acanthosis nigricans causes dark brown-black patches or streaks in skin creases especially on the neck, armpits and groin. It has a velvety elevated texture. It is caused by insulin resistance.

Learning Point
Brown is produced in several ways. Combinations of red, yellow and black, or orange and black are the usual ways.
The differential diagnosis for brown skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Acanthosis nigricans
    • Addison disease
    • Cushing syndrome
    • Drug induced hyperpigmentation
      • Topical or systemic medications often with additional skin exposure
    • Incontinentia pigmenti
    • Neoplasms
      • Langerhans cell histiocytosis
      • Lymphoma
      • Melanoma
    • Pigmented purpuric dermatosis
      • Petechiae
      • Purpura
      • Telangiectasis
    • Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation
      • Cosmetics
      • Inflammation
      • Sun
      • Trauma
    • Pregnancy
    • Melasma
    • Riehl melanosis
    • Seborrheic keratosis
    • Stasis dermatitis
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Incontinentia pigmenti
    • Melanonychia
    • Trauma
  • Mucosa
    • Infection
    • Peutz-Jegher syndrome
    • Laugier-Hunziker syndrome
    • Trauma

Grey is a combination of white and black. “An achromatic gray is a gray color in which the red, green, and blue codes are exactly equal….A chromatic gray is a gray color in which the red, green, and blue codes are not exactly equal, but are close to each other, which is what makes it a shade of gray.”
The differential diagnosis for gray skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Ashy dermatitis (erythema dischromicum)
      • Dermal melanocytosis
      • Congenital dermal melanocytosis
      • Nevus of Ito or Ota
    • Drugs often with additional skin exposure
      • Antibiotics
        • Grey-baby syndrome with chloramphenicol
        • Tetracycline
      • Heavy metals
        • Gold
        • Iron
        • Silver
    • Incontinentia pigmenti
    • Hypomelanosis of Ito
    • Hemochromatosis
    • Lichen planus pigmentosis
    • Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome
    • Ochronosis
    • Organ failure (late)
    • Trauma
  • Hair
    • Chemical-induced
    • Silvery hair syndrome
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Incontinentia pigmenti

Questions for Further Discussion
1. What brown skin conditions do you see most often?
2. What grey skin conditions do you see most often?
3. What are indications for referral to a dermatologist?

Related Cases

To Learn More
To view pediatric review articles on this topic from the past year check PubMed.

Evidence-based medicine information on this topic can be found at SearchingPediatrics.com and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Information prescriptions for patients can be found at MedlinePlus for this topic: Rashes

To view current news articles on this topic check Google News.

To view images related to this topic check Google Images.

To view videos related to this topic check YouTube Videos.

Abdel-Naser MB. The color of skin: gray diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):507-515. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.011

Kutlubay Z, Cesur SK, Askın O, Tuzun Y. The color of skin: brown diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):487-506. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.007

Shades of brown. In: Wikipedia. 2022. Accessed January 25, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shades_of_brown&oldid=1065742420

Shades of gray. In: Wikipedia. 2022. Accessed January 25, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shades_of_gray&oldid=1065573955

Visible spectrum. In: Wikipedia. 2021. Accessed January 4, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Visible_spectrum&oldid=1062416030

Author
Donna M. D’Alessandro, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Universit

What is in the Differential Diagnosis for Black and White Skin Conditions?

Patient Presentation
A 2 year-old African-American female came to clinic with white spots her mother was concerned because they were worsening. The spots were mainly on her face and arms but also a few on her trunk and had been worsening in that they were more prominant for about 1 month. The mother denied any new soaps, lotions/detergents or other products. She was using sunscreen intermittently. She had been to the pool more often because it was summer. She was otherwise well. The past medical story was positive for atopic dermatitis.

The pertinent physical exam showed a healthy appearing toddler with normal vital sign and growth parameters in the 50%. She had mild, generalized xerosis but also areas where she had more patches of reddened skin. She also had similar areas of 1-3 cm in size that were lighter to quite white in color with a blended border that was not punched out or discrete. The red and white patches were mainly on the face, upper trunk and extremities.

The diagnosis of atopic dermaitis with post-inflammatory skin changes was made. The physician explained that most likely the combination of atopic dermatitis, pool and possibly sunscreen chemical exposure probably was irritating her skin, and after the inflammation there can also be either lightening or darkening of the skin.
The sun exposure could also make her skin darken through tanning, all of which makes the white areas more prominent. She recommended continuing to use the sunscreen as the toddler had not had reactions to it in the past. She also recommended that the child shower after pool exposure and put on liberal amounts of additional sunscreen or emollients. Topical steroids were not recommended as she thought that emollients would help with the reddened areas. “If we can stay away from steroids I always try to do that. Plus steroids can also cause lightening of the skin as well for some people,” she explained. She also reviewed pool and summer safety with the mother.

Discussion
This is the third in a short case series of differential diagnoses of colored skin conditions.
An introduction to dermatological terminologies and information about colors can be can be found here.
A differential diagnosis by distribution and common pattern can be found here.
For red, orange and yellow conditions, a review can be found here.
For green, blue and purple conditions, a review can be found here.
For brown and grey conditions, a review can be found here.

Note that any color can be a normal variant for an individual or is physiologic for a given state. When lesions of the opposite color of the normal skin tone occur, this can be worrisome for individuals.

From a physics standpoint, black and white are not colors. Black and white do not have specific visual spectral wavelengths. Instead, black absorbs all the waves in the visible spectrum (none are reflected back to see the color), and white reflects back all the wavelengths. From an artistic or daily living viewpoint, black and white are described/treated as colors.

Learning Point
Black is not in the visible spectrum of light.
The differential diagnosis for black skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Acne – blackhead or open comedome
    • Acanthosis nigricans
    • Blue nevus
    • Calciphylaxis
    • Dermatosis papulose nigra
    • Discoid lupus erythematosus
    • Ecthyma gangrenosum
    • Exogenous ochronosis
    • Foreign body
    • Hematoma
    • Ink spot lentigo
    • Infection
      • Mucormycosis
      • Tinea nigra
      • Verrucae plantaris
    • Neoplasms
      • Basil cell carcinoma
      • Melanoma
      • Reed nevus or pigmented spindle nevus
      • Seborrheic keratosis, pigmented
    • Staining
      • Black dermatographism
      • Tattoo – intentional or traumatic
    • Vasculitis and embolism
      • Black heel or calcaneal petechiae
      • Frostbite
      • Gangrene
      • Thromboembolic disease
  • Hair
    • Black dot tinea capitus
    • Black piedra
  • Nail
    • Subungual hematoma
    • Melanonychia
  • Mucosa
    • Amalgam reactions
    • Black harry tongue

White is not in the visible spectrum of light
The differential diagnosis for white skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Actinic keratosis
    • Albinism
    • Blanching, normal
    • Degos disease
    • Chemical exposure including lead
    • Halo nevus of Sutton
    • Happle syndrome
    • Hand-arm vibration syndrome
    • Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis
    • Intralesional steroid injection
    • Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
    • Lichen striatus
    • Melasma
    • Milia
    • Localized hypopigmentation including ash-leaf spots
    • Piebaldism
    • Pityriasis alba
    • Pityriasis licenoides chronica
    • Psoriasis
    • Post-inflammatory reaction
      • Atopic dermatitis
      • Candidal dermatitis
    • Sun bleaching
    • Tinea versicolor
    • Urticaria
    • Vitiligo
    • Waardenburg syndrome
  • Hair
    • Chemical exposure
    • Depigmentation
    • Sun bleaching
    • UV light leukoderma
  • Nail
    • Leukonychia
    • Trauma
  • Mucosa – often temporary
    • Trauma
    • Infection

Questions for Further Discussion
1. What black skin conditions do you see often?
2. What white skin conditions do you see often?
3. What are indications for referral to a dermatologist?

Related Cases

    Symptom/Presentation: Rash

To Learn More
To view pediatric review articles on this topic from the past year check PubMed.

Evidence-based medicine information on this topic can be found at SearchingPediatrics.com and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Information prescriptions for patients can be found at MedlinePlus for this topic: Rashes

To view current news articles on this topic check Google News.

To view images related to this topic check Google Images.

To view videos related to this topic check YouTube Videos.

Brown AE, Qiu CC, Drozd B, Sklover LR, Vickers CM, Hsu S. The color of skin: white diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):561-579. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.018

Qiu CC, Brown AE, Lobitz GR, Shanker A, Hsu S. The color of skin: black diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):447-467. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.08.003

Visible spectrum. In: Wikipedia. 2021. Accessed January 4, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Visible_spectrum&oldid=1062416030

Author
Donna M. D’Alessandro, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, University of Iowa

What is in the Differential Diagnosis for Green, Blue or Violet Skin Conditions?

Patient Presentation
A term, newborn male was seen in the newborn nursery and the history was non-contributory. The pertinent physical exam showed a healthy male with a weight of 3367 grams. He had molding of his head, mild acrocyanosis and blue melanocytosis across his buttocks and upper posterior thighs. The diagnosis of a a healthy male was made who was transitioning to external life normally with acrocyanosis. He had routine care and was discharged at 2 days of life.

Discussion
Acrocyanosis is commonly seen in the newborn period as the baby transitions to extra-uterine life. It appears as blue-purple coloration of the distal extremities which usually improves over several hours.
Blue melanocytosis is also a common normal variant of skin color. It usually is seen on the posterior surface of the body around the spine and buttocks, but can also be on the upper parts of the extremities.
It is a blue-black coloration that shows a normal skin undertone when palpated.

This is the second in a short case series of differential diagnoses of colored skin conditions.
An introduction to dermatological terminologies and information about colors can be can be found here.
A differential diagnosis by distribution and common pattern can be found here.
For red, orange and yellow conditions, a review can be found here.
For black and white conditions, a review can be found here.
For brown and grey conditions, a review can be found here.

Note that any color can be a normal variant for an individual or is physiologic for a given state.

Learning Point
Green is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 500-565 nm.
The differential diagnosis for green skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Bruising/ecchymosis
    • Apocrine chromhidrosis
    • Chlorosis – a review can be found here
    • Copper-induced green skin
    • Liver disease
    • Organ failure
    • Weil’s syndrome
    • Neoplasms – chloroma
    • Drugs
    • Infectious – Pseudomonas infections
    • Staining – tattoo
  • Hair
    • Green hair
      • Copper deposition
      • Chemicals and shampoos
      • Sun-bleaching
  • Nails
    • Chloronychia or green nail syndrome

Blue is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 450-485 nm.
The differential diagnosis for blue skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Alkaptonuria
    • Bruising/ecchymosis
    • B12 deficiency
    • Drug-induced
    • HIV infection
    • Iron deficiency
    • Livido reticularis
    • Methemoglobinemia
    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Necrotizing fasciitis
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Physiologic
      • Newborn
      • Post-mortem
    • Radiation
    • Staining
      • Chemical-induced including many cleaners
      • Ink
      • Tattoo
    • Syndromes
      • Blue rubber bleb nevus
      • Ehler-Danlos syndrome
      • Kabuki syndrome
    • Tumors
      • Blue nevus
      • Carcinoma
      • Dermal melanocytosis (previously known as Mongolian spots)
      • Dermatofibroma
      • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma
      • Hidrocystoma
      • Junctional nevus
      • Lymphoma
      • Melanoma
      • Nevus of Ota
      • Pilomatricoma
      • Spitz nevus (pigmented)
      • Metastatic malignancies
    • Vascular
      • Acrocyanosis
      • Cyanosis
      • Hemangiomas
      • Hematoma
      • Varicosities
      • Venous malformations
    • Wilson disease
  • Hair
    • Chemical-induced
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Myxoid cyst
  • Mucosa
    • Mucocoele

Violet is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 380-450 nm.
The differential diagnosis for violet skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Arthropod bites
    • Bruising and ecchymosis
    • Connective tissue diseases
      • Dermatomyositis
      • Lupus erythematosis
      • Sjorgren syndrome
    • Contact dermatitis
    • Drugs – including contaminants
    • Staining – tattoo
    • HematologicThrombocytopenia
      • Platelet dysfunction
      • Thrombocytopenia
    • InfectionsThrombocytopenia
      • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
      • Purpura fulminans
      • Emboli – septic emboli
    • Neoplasms – metastatic disease
    • Vasculitis Thrombocytopenia
      • ANCA-associated vasculitis
      • Anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome
      • Erythema multiformae
      • Calciphylaxis
      • Cryoglobinemia
      • Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
      • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener’s granulomatosis)
      • IgA vasculitis (formerly Henoch-Schonlein purpura)
      • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
      • Microscopic polyangiitis
      • Necrosis
      • Polyarteritis nodosa
  • Hair
    • Chemical-induced
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Emboli
  • Mucosa
    • Similar to skin

Questions for Further Discussion
1. What green skin conditions do you see often?
2. What blue skin conditions do you see often?
3. What violet skin conditions do you see often?
4. What are indications for referral to a dermatologist?

Related Cases

    Symptom/Presentation: Rash

To Learn More
To view pediatric review articles on this topic from the past year check PubMed.

Evidence-based medicine information on this topic can be found at SearchingPediatrics.com and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Information prescriptions for patients can be found at MedlinePlus for this topic: Rashes

To view current news articles on this topic check Google News.

To view images related to this topic check Google Images.

To view videos related to this topic check YouTube Videos.

Ghosh SK, Bandyopadhyay D. The color of skin: green diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):516-519. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.012

Cohen PR. The color of skin: blue diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):468-486. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.006

Steuer AB, Cohen JM. The color of skin: purple diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):528-547. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.016

Visible spectrum. In: Wikipedia. 2021. Accessed January 4, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Visible_spectrum&oldid=1062416030

Author
Donna M. D’Alessandro, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, University of Iowa

What is in the Differential Diagnosis for Red, Orange or Yellow Skin Conditions?

Patient Presentation
A 15 month-year-old female came to clinic with a history of fever for 2 days up to 101.7F° and a rash that the mother noticed on the toddler’s trunk the evening before. She had some rhinorrhea, but no cough, emesis, or emesis and did not seem to be in pain. She had no history of exposures to any new soaps, lotion, detergents, etc. She was not taking any medications. Her daycare had some children with fevers but the mother didn’t know if they also had rashes. She had been drinking and urinating well. She was otherwise well.

The pertinent physical exam showed a healthy appearing child who interacted and smiled. She was afebrile and her growth parameters were around the 75%. HEENT reveled clear rhinorrhea, with normal ears and pharynx. She had a few shotty anterior cervical nodes. Her trunk and proximal shoulders and legs had multiple 1-2 mm, uniformly diffuse macular lesions that were pink in color and blanched with pressure. The rest of her examination was normal.

The diagnosis of a viral exanthem was made and her mother was educated regarding symptomatic care and when she could return to daycare.

Discussion
This is the first in a short case series of differential diagnoses of colored skin conditions.
A differential diagnosis by distribution and common pattern can be found here.
For green, blue and violet conditions, a review can be found here.
For black and white conditions, a review can be found here.
For brown and grey conditions, a review can be found here.

Note that any color can be a normal variant for an individual or is physiologic for a given state.

The skin is the largest organ of the body. It can be easily examined but for many clinicians continues to be difficult to describe what they are seeing. Analogies and comparisons are often used such as “It sort of looks like XXX,” or “It looks like atopic dermatitis but also YYY.” Skin lesions are described in many terms including morphology, size (using standard measurements), demarcation (well- or not well- demarcated), location, distribution and color. Morphologically lesions may be uniform or not uniform.

Primary morphology terms include:

  • “Macule – flat lesion less than 1 cm, without elevation or depression
  • Patch – flat lesion greater than 1 cm, without elevation or depression
  • Plaque – flat, elevated lesion, usually greater than 1 cm
  • Papule – elevated, solid lesion less than 1 cm
  • Nodule – elevated, solid lesion greater than 1 cm
  • Vesicle – elevated, fluid-filled lesion, usually less than 1 cm
  • Pustule – elevated, pus-filled lesion, usually less than 1 cm
  • Bulla – elevated, fluid-filled lesion, usually greater than 1 cm”

Secondary morphology terms include: erosion, fissure, lichenification, scaling, ulceration, serum (dry crust).

Distribution patterns include generalized, dermatomal, extensor, and photodistribution.

Color can also be difficult for people to describe both for patients and clinicians. Skin coloration is not uniform over the body and the changes from one area to the other are often not well-demarcated and are subtle. Color changes with high contrast (i.e. vermilion border, areola) are often easier for people to appreciate and articulate more accurately. Intensity of the coloration makes a difference (i.e. newborn jaundice with fluorescent quality or barely perceptible over the nose/face). The underlying skin tone, predominant skin color and ambient lighting conditions also makes large differences in how color is perceived and articulated.
Even color has different definitions which are commonly used interchangeably.

  • Primary colors – red, yellow, blue
  • Secondary colors – orange, green, violet
  • Tertiary colors – red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet
  • Hues – pure colors
  • Tints – hue + white
  • Tones – hue + grey
  • Shades – hue + black

Because of these numerous issues, it can be helpful to describe the predominant color and then a secondary color. For example, red with some pink areas is different than pink with some red areas.

Learning Point
Red is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 625 to 750 nm.
The differential diagnosis for red skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Burns – including sunburn
    • Dermatitis
      • Allergic
      • Atopic
      • Contact
      • Rosacea
      • Seborrheic
    • Dermatomyositis
    • Drug eruptions including Red man syndrome due to vancomycin
    • Erythema nodosum
    • Erythroderma
    • Infectious
      • Abscess
      • Cellulitis
      • Erysipelas
      • Candidiasis
      • Dermatophytoses
      • Toxic erythema – Kawasaki disease, Scarlet fever, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, Toxic shock syndrome
      • Viral exanthems
    • Inflammatory
    • Multiple causes and specific locations
    • Acne
    • Lupus erythematosus
    • Neoplasms
    • Phototoxic reactions
    • Post-inflammatory erythema
    • Pityriasis rosea
    • Specific areas – red hands or palms, red scrotum or vulva
    • Trauma
    • Vascular lesions and problems
      • Angiomas
      • Hemangiomas
      • Deep vein thrombosis
      • Stasis dermatitis
  • Hair
    • Red or “ginger” hair
    • Chemical-induced
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Rubronychia
    • Red splinter lines in nails
  • Mucosa
    • Infection
    • Trauma

Orange is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 590-625 nm.
The differential diagnosis for orange skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Xanthoderma
      • Drug-induced
      • Carotenemia
      • Lycopenemia
      • Foreign body granuloma
    • Infections
      • Leishmaniasis
      • Lupus vulgaris
    • Neoplastic
      • Sebaceous lesions – adenoma, carcinoma, nevus sebaceum
      • Histiocytosis, non-Langerhans
        • Juvenile xanthogranloma
        • Xanthoma disseenatum
      • Mastocytoma
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Pityriasis rubra pilaris
  • Hair
    • Chemical-induced
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced

Yellow is in the visible spectrum of light with wavelengths ranging from 565-590 nm.
The differential diagnosis for yellow skin conditions includes:

  • Skin
    • Acne
    • Adipose tissue such as fat herniation
    • Connective tissue nevus
    • Ecchymosis
    • Epidermal cysts
    • Elastoma
    • Fixed drug eruption
    • Infectious
      • Candidiasis
      • Dermatophytosis
      • Impetigo
      • Sloughing skin
      • Viral
    • Lichen aureus
    • Keratin
      • Actinic keratosis
      • Hyperkeratosis
      • Seborrheic keratosis
      • Viral
    • Metabolic
      • Biliary disease
      • Diabetes
      • Estrogen
      • Hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal
      • Hyperlipoproteinemia
      • Hypothryoidism
      • Obstructive liver disease
      • Phytolesteroemia
      • Pancreatitis
      • Renal failure
    • Neoplastic
      • Histiocytosis
      • Mastocytoma
      • Sebaceous lesions – adenoma, carcinoma, nevus sebaceum
      • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Pustular lesions
      • Erythema toxicum neonatorum
      • Folliculitis
      • Pustular dermatotis
      • Pustular psoriasis
      • Transient neonatal pusular melanosis
    • Rosacea
    • Staining
      • Henna
      • Nicotine
      • Tattoo
      • Tumeric
    • Solar elastosis
    • Xanthomas and xanthadermatosis
      • Multiple variations including specific locations such as tendon xanthoma
      • Drug-induced
      • Carotenemia
      • Lycopenemia
  • Hair
    • Chemical-induced
  • Nails
    • Chemical-induced
    • Dystrophic nails
    • Onchomycosis
    • Pachyonychia congenita
    • Yellow nail syndrome

Questions for Further Discussion
1. What red skin conditions do you see often?
2. What orange skin conditions do you see often?
3. What yellow skin conditions do you see often?
4. What are indications for referral to a dermatologist?

Related Cases

    Symptom/Presentation: Rash

To Learn More
To view pediatric review articles on this topic from the past year check PubMed.

Evidence-based medicine information on this topic can be found at SearchingPediatrics.com and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Information prescriptions for patients can be found at MedlinePlus for this topic: Rashes

To view current news articles on this topic check Google News.

To view images related to this topic check Google Images.

To view videos related to this topic check YouTube Videos.

Elias M, Patel S, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC. The color of skin: red diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):548-560. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.017

Logan IT, Logan RA. The color of skin: yellow diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):580-590. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.019

Soundararajan V, Charny JW, Bain MA, Tsoukas MM. The color of skin: orange diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa. Clinics in Dermatology. 2019;37(5):520-527. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.014

Dermatology Exam: Learning the Language. Stanford Medicine 25. Accessed January 4, 2022. https://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/the25/dermatology.html#serum

Visible spectrum. In: Wikipedia. ; 2021. Accessed January 4, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Visible_spectrum&oldid=1062416030

Author
Donna M. D’Alessandro, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, University of Iowa